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A computer is a digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.


“`i.“` *Computer Hardware:* Hardware is the physical component of the computer system. The hardware component consists of several parts like input devices, central processing Unit *(CPU),* primary storage, output devices, and auxiliary storage devices.

“`ii.“` *Computer software:* It includes the features that responsible for directing the work to the hardware. Software can be divided int othe programs and data.


“`i“` *Data* is any sequence of one or more symbols; datum is a single symbol of data. Data requires interpretation to become information. Digital data is data that is represented using the binary number system of ones and zeros, instead of analog representation. In modern computer systems, all data is digital.

“`ii.“` *Information* is a term used to describe text that is informative to the individual reading it or the computer processing.

“`iii.“` *An input device* is a piece of equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system, such as a computer or information appliance. Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, cameras, joysticks, and microphones

“`iv.“` *An output device* is any piece of computer hardware equipment which converts information into a human-perceptible form or, historically, into a physical machine-readable form for use with other non-computerized equipment.

“`v.“` *An application software* is a computer program designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used by end-users.

“`vi.“` *Utility software* is software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. It is used to support the computer infrastructure – in contrast to application software, which is aimed at directly performing tasks that benefit ordinary users.


A monitor is an electronic output device that is also known as a video display terminal *(VDT)* or a video display unit *(VDU).* It is used to display images, text, video, and graphics information generated by a connected computer via a computer’s video card.

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*°* LED Monitors.
*°* OLED Monitors
*°* DLP Monitors
*°* TFT Monitors
*°* Plasma Screen Monitors.


_Check Diagram Below 👇_



“`i.“` *File Organization* refers to the logical relationships among various records that constitute the file, particularly with respect to the means of identification and access to any specific record. In simple terms, Storing the files in certain order is called file Organization.

“`ii.“` *The logical file organization* is the level of the file system at which users can request file operations by system call. This level of the file system provides the kernel with a consistent view of what might be multiple physical file systems and multiple file system implementations.

“`iii.“` *The physical file* is made up of a set of physical records which are in turn made up of a set of fields. The fields can be of fixed length or variable length, and the record can consist of fixed length fields, variable length fields or a mixture of both fixed and variable length fields.


“`i“` It helps in online transaction processing system (OLTP) like online railway reservation system.

“`i.“` In direct access file, sorting of the records are not required.

“`iii.“` It accesses the desired records immediately.


“`i.“` Direct access file does not provide back up facility.

“`ii.“` It is expensive.

“`iii.“` It has less storage space as compared to sequential file.



A digital comparator or magnitude comparator is a hardware electronic device that takes two numbers as input in binary form and determines whether one number is greater than, less than or equal to the other number. Comparators are used in central processing units *(CPUs)* and microcontrollers *(MCUs).*

_Check Diagram Below 👇_


*°* The output of NAND gate is the compliment of the product of the input.

*°* NAND gate is formed by the combination of NOT gate and AND gate.

*°* If any input is low the output is high

*NOR Gates*

*°* The output of NOR gate is the compliment of the sum of the input.

*°* NOR gate is the combination of NOT and OR gate

*°* when both the inputs are low then output is high


The array is the command used to draw multiple copies of an object in a particular pattern or order

“`i.“` *A rectangular array* consists of a set of objects arranged in a similar way to a rectangular grid. It is one way of packing objects (e.g. eggs) efficiently. This is an array of dots.

“`ii.“` *The path array* is defined as the arrangement of copied objects along the specified path. The path can be closed or opened.

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A computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language that a computer can execute or interpret. In declarative programming, a computer program is a set of instructions.

*_Pick four only_*

*°* Flexibility.
*°* User Friendly.
*°* Portability.
*°* Reliability.
*°* Self-Documenting Code.

“`i.“` *Problem Definition:* The first step in the process of program development is the thorough understanding and identification of the problem for which is the program or software is to be developed.

“`ii.“` *Program Design:* The next stage is the program design. The software developer makes use of tools like algorithms and flowcharts to develop the design of the program.

“`iii.“` *Coding:* Once the design process is complete, the actual computer program is written, i.e. the instructions are written in a computer language.

“`iv.“` *Debugging:* At this stage the errors in the programs are detected and corrected.
This stage of program development is an important process. Debugging is also known as program validation.

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(3ai) Human Immunodeficiency Virus

(ii) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

(b) *PICK 5*
(i) friquent diarrhea
(ii) Tuberculosis
(iii) pneumonia
(iv) persistent fever
(v) Weight loss
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(ii) By sharing needles. Sharing contaminated injection (needles and syringes) puts you at high risk of HIV

(iii) From blood transfusions. In some cases, the virus may be transmitted through blood transfusions.

(iv) During pregnancy or delivery or through breastfeeding. Infected mothers can pass the virus on to their babies.

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